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  Power Input Required
(Measured in: Watts  BTUs)
Carnot Efficiency Peltier
5% Carnot
45% Carnot
Cool Chip
55% Carnot
COP cooling
COP heating
  1. Supply values for both hot and cold sides of the system, then press the "tab" key to calculate results.

  2. Power input requirements will be displayed in the table above - values represent the number of Watts or BTUs of electricity required to transport 1 Watt of heat at a given percentage of maximum Carnot efficiency (Cool Chips are projected to achieve 55% of Carnot efficiency).

  3. Resulting COP values (heating and cooling) will be displayed below the listed power input requirements.

NOTE: The calculator can also be used in reverse - by supplying available power inputs at a given percentage of Carnot efficiency, corresponding power requirements and COP values will be displayed.

What is COP?

COP, or Coefficient of Performance, is the ratio of cooling (or heating) to energy consumption. For example, a refrigerator with a COP of 2 moves 2 watts of heat for every watt of electricity consumed. An air conditioner with a COP of 4 moves 4 watts of heat for every watt consumed.

For domestic heating, COP is also used. An electric heater has a COP of 1: each watt of power consumed produces 1 watt of heat. Conventional heat pumps have COPs of 2-5, delivering 2 to 5 times more energy than they consume.

What is Carnot Efficiency?

Carnot Efficiency can also be called "Maximum Possible COP". It describes the theoretical limits. If we had a *perfect* heat pump, it would have a Carnot efficiency of 100%.

The Carnot cycle can be thought of as the most efficient cooling cycle allowed by physical laws. When the second law of thermodynamics states that not all the energy supplied to a cooler can be used to cool, the Carnot efficiency sets the limiting value on the fraction of the energy which can be so used.

For comparison purposes, a typical thermoelectric (Peltier) cooler has a Carnot efficiency of about 5-8%. A typical domestic refrigerator compressor has a maximum Carnot efficiency of about 45%. Cool Chips are projected to achieve 55% of Carnot.

In a cooling applications, there is a maximum amount of cooling which can occur with a given amount of electricity. This amount is the maximum Carnot efficiency. It means that the colder one wants to make something, the more energy it requires.

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